Saturday, February 26, 2011

Human Resource Management(For Batch of 2003 and Earlier) - 4

Human Resource Management(For Batch of 2003 and Earlier) - 4
Q. 8 (a) Explain the importance of Career Planning in industry.

Answer 8 (a)
Career planning involves efforts on the part of the organizations to provide avenues for growth to its employees. Certainly this growth should be accompanied by development. The other side of the coin is the role of employees in career planning. It involves effort on the part of employees to clearly think through and decided areas in which they would like to make a career for themselves.

When employees have assessed their career needs and have become aware of organizational career opportunities, the problem is one of alignment. The crucial role has to be played by HRD in ensuring this alignment to build up morale in the organization. A systematic choice of development techniques like training, special assignment, counseling and rotational assignments should be made to ensure this alignment.

Employees are often uncertain as to the type of work that would suit them best. There are a number of evaluation instruments available to determine basic aptitudes. Human Resource Development Managers should be able to guide employees by administering these instruments on them. Employees should also find out whether they are loners or socially active. These exercises with some assistance from HRD Managers should help in career need assessment.

Realizing that employees have definite career needs, organization should chart different career paths. These should be made known to all employees. As every employee wishes to see bright future for himself, these career paths do provide the hope to achieve success.

At certain stage the upward mobility stops for many employees. This is inescapable in view of pyramid organizations structure. This phenomenon is called plateauing. It takes place around the age f 40. Some suggested measures to deal with such employees are:
• Mentors should be assigned measures to deal with such employees are:
Depending on the maturity of such mentors, good results can be achieved in assuaging the hurt feelings of plateaued employees
Additional career ladders could be established to retain some valuable resource.
Giving them importance by assigning them to some important task force or committee.
Assisting them to choose a new career. Some organizations assist their plateau executives to start their own business.

Career path models developed by a large public sector undertaking:
This organization has developed career paths models for the major discipline
• Sales
• Technical services
• Operations
• Engineering
• Aviation
• Finance
• Personnel

Q8 (b) “Career Planning and Succession Planning are very vital to meet the challenges thrown by the forces of globalization and liberalization.” Explain.

Answer 8 (b)

Career planning and succession planning is very vital to meet the challenges due to globalization and liberalization.

Market is open and vast in India and lot of professionally managed companies are entering the market, giving people a lot of scope in enhancing the career with very good and managed companies. No longer a hierarchical an autocratic organizations where no career planning and succession planning is performed.

Lot of recruitment and training cost is incurred due to lack or poor planning of career.
People do not see their career drafted and planned by organizations. HR only worries about the present state. No training and induction on work is provided continuously keep the gaps closed for all employees. Retention is the need of the hour. Talent and knowledge of personnel needs to be kept alive. Corporate environment and congenial atmosphere keeps employees motivated to do work.

Competition in the market to get best suitable candidates keep the HR to retain and curve a need career for the employee.

With globalization and liberalization, working hours and freedom to employees in their work, led to companies looking at the HR policies.

The survey recorded the most important changes in human resources in the different companies from 1991-96.
Virtually all companies starting placing emphasis on the up gradation of managerial and professional skills.
A flatter organizational structure had resulted in fewer levels of hierarchy and enhanced empowerment; empowerment to all categories, from shop floor workers to managers had facilitated decision-making, flexibility, and trust. This had led to improved employee involvement and motivation.
People at the middle levels of management were becoming more participated and result-oriented. On the other hand, decision-making was increasingly being handled at the group level.
In security level among employees had diminished and their sense of responsibility had increased.
There was emphasis on openness and transparency. An improvement in the communication channels within organization had resulted in better interpersonal
Change in recruitment policy had led to the induction of professional with diverse technical, managerial, and academic background.

Q9 (b) What is meant by HRD Audit?

Answer9 (b)

HRD audit is a comprehensive evaluation of the current HRD strategies, structures, systems, styles and skills in context of the short term and long term business plans of the company. It attempts to find out the future HRD needs of the company after assessing the current HRD activities and inputs.

Importance of HRD audit
HRD audit plays a very important role in the working of the organization that can be traced with the help of the following points:

1. It helps to make HR functions business driven: HRD audit is undertaken by most organizations to make HR systems and processes more relevant to business goals. Some companies go in for HRD audit to examine and make changes in the HR function to accompany organizational changes.
2. It tends to take stock of things and to improve HRD for expanding, diversifying and entering into the fast growth phase
3. it helps in promoting professionalism among employees and to switch over to professional management.
4. Multinationals wants to know the reason for lower labor productivity and for improving their HRD strategies in the Indian context and so with the help of HRD audit they want to compare the labor productivity ratio of India with the ratio of other countries as the labor productivity is more and it is cost effective as compared to other countries.
5. HRD audits are also done for the growth and diversification of an organization into new areas.
6. Many organizations took HRD audit as a comprehensive review to their dissatisfaction with one or two subsystems of HRD.
7. Some organization takes HRD audit as a step to recruit new managers and reorient the entire HRD department

Role of HRD audit
The following are some of the favorable consequences of HRD audit:
1. It can get the top management to think in terms of strategic and long term business plans
2. In tends to bring the changes in the styles of the top management.
3. It plays an important role in clarity of HRD department and the role of line managers in HRD
4. It helps in bringing a large amount of improvement in the HRD systems in the form of induction training, career planning, promotion policies etc.
5. It focuses on human resources and human competencies.
6. It promotes better recruitment policies
7. It provides more planning and more cost effective training.
8. It helps 8in strengthening accountability through appraisal system and other mechanism.

So to conclude we can say that there are various reason for initiating HRD audit in a particular organization as it plays a very important role in increasing the work ability of an organization.

Q10 (a) Explain the nature of Human Resource Development. Examine its nature and scope.

Answer10 (a)
Human Resource Development is a process of increasing knowledge, capabilities and positive work attitude of all people working in a business underrating, in other words in can be defined as an organized working experience within a given period of time with the objective of producing the possibility of performance change.

Nature and Scope of Human Resource Development
The dynamic environment of the organizations demand regular updating of job requirements, which is necessary for continuous flow of qualified persons for the changed jobs. Its scope can be understood with the help of following points:
1. Since HRD is made up of dependent parts so the design of the system should also take into consideration its linkage with other departments of the organization.
2. Since HRD is a proactive function so its function is not only to cope with the needs of the organization but also to anticipate and act on these needs in a continuous and planned manner.
3. It aims at developing the capabilities of the line managers so that they can increasingly handle functions like industrial relations, rewards and punishments etc.
4. HRD emphasizes on building a right work culture in the organization that identifies the nature and capabilities of the people working in the organization.
5. Its main aim is to motivate the people though job enrichment, participative management etc.
6. HRD also aims at the better utilization of human resources which leads to an improved performance which in turn leads job satisfaction and morale boosting.

So we can say that HRD has given us the problem solving techniques and more committed work force.

Scope of HRD in India
HR being the only factor that can facilitate effective use of science and technology it can help the developing countries like India to attain the goal of molding HR in the right perspective. HRD helps in incorporating high levels of skills and knowledge, which leads to improvement in quality, and reduction of cost of production. HRD also assist in evolving policies which will be useful in generating job satisfaction, career development opportunities etc. The various elements on which HRD system is based are as follows:

v Evolving a system of Human Resources Planning.
v Selection of right people for the right job.
v Imparting proper training based on the principal of learning, teaching basic work skills, motion study and training to foremen.
v Evolving suitable compensation plans
v Evolving a good performance appraisal system.

Many organizations in India have started implementing the HRD programmes and so we can say that HRD programmes have started having its impact on the different organization in India.

Q10 (b) What constitutes Good HR Practices? What is its impact on the organizational performance?

Answer 10 (b)

Any practice that deals with enhancing Competencies, Commitment and Culture building can be considered as HR practice. The practice can take the form of a system, a process, an activity, a norm, a rule and accepted or expected habit, or just a way of doing things. Human resource development has been defined as essentially consisting of three Cs.
Competencies, Commitment and Culture, all three are needed to make an organization function well. Without competencies many task of the organization may not be completed, cost effective or with optimal efficiency. Without commitment they may not be done at all or are done at such a slow pace that they loose relevance. Without an appropriate culture, it is impossible for an organization to live. Its utility comes to the fore specially an organization is in trouble.

Competencies are not merely related to single individual instead they can also relate to pairs of individuals which includes departments, task forces, team and other formal or informal groups and/or teams that may come into existence from time to time on a temporary, permanent to semi- permanent basis. Competencies may also be related to the organization as a whole. They may also deal with various areas and functions. Technology, organization and management; behavioral; conceptual; etc they may include a variety of skills and ranging from simple awareness; knowledge and information to highly sophisticated and complex ones; attitudes values and habits also become competencies though they more often deal with patterns of working.

Developing commitment has a lot to do with motivation work habits; commitment is indicated by work effort zeal involvement and enjoyment of the work on the job. Commitment building should be continuous and on going process. And should be at a level of individuals, dyads, teams, the work unit and the entire organization. Various HR systems process and activities contribute to developing commitment among employees at the more visible level, rewards, recognition and similar interventions can lead to greater culture, the behavior of the seniors towards their subordinates etc influence commitment.

A string culture can have lasting effect and provide sustenance to an organization; it gives a sense of pride and identity to individuals and teams. It enhances predictability, reduces transactional cost and also contributes to commitment. However, the culture and values associated with an organization needs to be appropriate and well articulate the instruments of culture building includes organizational climate surveys, total quality management interventions, value clarification exercises, vision-mission workshops, organizational –renewal exercises and various other organizational development interventions.

Good HR practices are those that contribute to one or more of three Cs. They need to be identified and implemented cost-effectively, reviewing and revising them from time to time to enhance their effectiveness and appropriateness.

HRD and Organizational effectiveness

HRD practices enhance the internal capabilities of an organization to deal with current or future challenges to be faced by an organization. Good HR practice also energizes people. The commitment and motivation built through good HR practice can lead to hard work and can have a multiplier effect on the conversion of human capital to organizational capital. The culture so built can help to create a sustainable and lasting capability of the organization to manage itself and not only cope with the external turbulence but even encash on the opportunities offered by the changing environment.
The HRD tools if effectively used can create a conducive HRD culture and HRD learning processes. HRD processes are intermediate variables and affect the HRD outcomes. They are less easily observable and are softer dimension that indicates the effectiveness of HRD tools. HRD process variables include role clarity on a continuous basis, working planning, awareness of competencies and a more directed efforts to build them, better communication and the practice of HRD values like openness, trust, pro-action authenticity, autonomy, confrontation etc. Such HRD culture and processes can result in more observable and quantifiable outcomes which include a higher level of competencies of the employees, better utilization of human resources through better developed roles, higher work commitment, work motivation, greater team work and synergy etc. the HRD outcome can influence the organization’s business goals which may be in terms of higher productivity, cost reduction, more profits, better image and more satisfied customers and stake holders.

Labels: Human Resource Management(For Batch of 2003 and Earlier)
Human Resource Management(For Batch of 2003 and Earlier) - 3
Q6 (a) Explain how the training needs can be identified?

Answer6 (a)

Training could be useful aid in improving the transformation process that takes place in an organization n terms of the processing of inputs to outputs. Training needs have to be related both in terms of the organizational demands and that of the individual’s. Diversifications of product lines, new technology and hence a new kind of jobs demands the individual’s growth and development through induction training, or training necessitate by job rotation due to an organization’s internal mobility policies.

Recognition that a problem exists

Identification of the real problem

Consideration of possible solutions

Non training solutions Training solutions

Discuss as appropriate Commitment of management action
Fig.1 Models of Identifying Training needs

Many methods have been proposed for identifying training needs, which are as follows:
1. View of the line manager
2. Performance appraisal
3. Company and departmental plans
4. View of training manager
5. Analysis of job difficulties.

Now we can explain a model of identifying training needs, which constitute the following three factors:
1. Organizational Analysis
2. Task Analysis
3. Man Analysis

Total Organizational Analysis

It is a systematic effort to understand exactly where training efforts needs to be emphasized in an organization. It involves the detailed analysis of the organizational structure, objectives, human resources and future plans, and an understanding of its cultural values. An in depth analysis of this factor would facilitate an understanding of deficiencies need to be rectified.
The first step in organizational analysis is achieving a clear understanding of both short-run and long run goals.
From the point of view of the training, a manager would need to examine if there are any specific training inputs that could contribute towards the attainment of the corporate objectives. For instance, the organizational structure might have to be realigned keeping in view the changed objectives, growth and diversification plans, or the possibility of need for greater decentralization or induction of new employees and redefined jobs all of which will have implications on each individual job role in the organization necessitating the training of the employees.
For an organization analysis there are three essential requirements, which are as follows:
v An adequate number of personnel available to ensure fulfillment of business operation.
v The personnel performance is upto the required standard.
v The working environment in there departments is conducive to fulfillment to tasks.

In order to analysis the organizational climate there are two different methods that are being used i.e. the direct and indirect method.
Direct methods are observations, use of questionnaires and interviews whereas indirect methods would not give a clear understanding of the attitudes and predispositions of the employees. It would be better to make a careful analysis and study each indicator in a particular situation in conjunction with more direct methods.

Task Analysis

This activity entails a detailed examination of a job, its components, its various operations and condition under which it has to be performed. The focus is on the task itself, rather than on the individual and the training required to perform it. Analysis of the job and its various component will indicate the skills and training require to perform the job at the required standard.

Standard of performance: every job has an expected standard of performance unless such standards are attained, not only interrelated job suffers but organizational viability will be effected and so will be the expectation that have been set for that particular job itself. It enables us to know whether the job is being performed at the desired level of output or not.

Methods: Task analysis entails not merely simple listing of the various job components but also of the relatively critical nature of the various sub-tasks. Conventional methods of job analysis are usually suitable for task analysis. They are as follows:
1. Literature review regarding the job.
2. Job performance
3. Job observation
4. Data collection regarding job interviews

Analysis of the job is but one part of the task analysis other areas are the skill required either in terms of an education and training to perform the job knowledge, and finally attitudinal predispositions.

Man Analysis

Man analysis is the third component in identifying training needs. The focus of man analysis is on The individual employees; his abilities, his skills and the inputs required for job performance, individual growth and development in terms of career planning. Man analysis help to identify whether the individual employee requires training and if so, what kind of training. Clues to training needs can come from an analysis of an individual’s or group’s typical behavior. The primary source of such information is
1. Observation at place of work; examination of job schedules; quantum of spoilage; wastage; and clues about interpersonal relations of the employees
2. Interview with superiors and employees
3. Comparative studies of good vs. poor employees to identify difference; skills and training gaps.
4. Personal records.
5. Production report
6. Review of literature regarding the job and machines used.
7. Job knowledge, work sampling and diagnostic psychological tests also provides information about employees.
Job performance data are more reliable when an employee is responsible for a simple, repetitive, single outcome type of a job. The job complexities increases with increasing responsibilities and the employee are more responsible for more outcomes.
The second method is by devising situations, which requires an employee to use similar skills and knowledge as on his job. These simulation exercises can focus on all aspects of the job and allows for better training than offered by the situation where only a particular aspect is stressed due to exigencies of work.

Finally, there are observational measures. The main features of this method are that this is an indirect data gathering process, by the supervisor or the third person. Some of these methods are checklist, merit rating, employee performance record etc.

So these are some of the methods through which we can identify the need for training in a particular organization.

Q6 (b) Explain how the results of training can be evaluated?

Answer6 (b)

Evaluation of any activity is important, since in evaluating one try to judge the “ value or worth of the activity, using the information available”. It is an attempt to obtain information on the effect of the training and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information. The various steps involved in the evaluation process are as follows:

The first method in the evaluation process is to identify the areas of training to be evaluated. The next step would be to decide on the strategies and methods to be used in collecting the relevant information, which is then processed into tabular format and then analyzed.

The second method of the evaluation of the training is that of rating. “Various elements of the training system should be rated independently by several qualified persons. These elements include trainees, instructors, equipments etc.

The third method is trainee surveys where opinions of the trainees are used for evaluation.

The fourth method is trainee interviews, whereby ideas and views that trainees might not put down on paper can be determined by skilful questioning which allows for more precise information and details to be obtained and prevent ambiguity.

The final method is that of collecting the observation and recommendations of instructors through surveys and interviews “ to ensure that the system is consistent with the needs of the implementers of the training”.
So these are some of the methods that can be used in the process of evaluation of training

Q7 (a) Examine the elements of Succession Planning?

Answer7 (a)

The various elements of Succession Planning are as follows:

1. The first and for-most element of succession planning is the development of staffing plans which should be prepared on an individual basis for all anticipated needs in the immediate year ahead and for key positions the intermediate and long range future. The business plans should be reviewed to determine their effect on managerial needs and there should be a proper formulation of the organizational plans and human resource. This can be more illustrated with the help of the fig given below:

Human Resource

Staffing Plans
Manpower Market


Fig. 1 Structure of Development Plans of Succession Planning

2. The second step concerns the staffing and development. Staffing includes recruitment, selection and placement of candidates from outside as well as selection and movement of present employees through promotion and transfer. There are some approaches that are to be used during the development procedure of the managerial staff which are as follows:
v There should be some formal training given to the managerial staff.
v There should be planned job rotation process.
v There should be a performance planning and appraisal program that should help to motivate employee to work hard.
v Proper counseling and coaching should be given to each and every employee to do its work properly.

3. The third element of Succession Planning is creation of a congenial environment where the employees can work at there best. The organizational environment should be such that the relation between the superior and subordinate should be more healthy and the subordinates should be aware about the expectation of the superiors and vice versa.

4. The concept of the appraisal is the most efficient method to motivate the employee to give their best for the attainment of the goals. The Appraisal and analysis of results achieved should provide an organization with the feedback of the performance of all the employees working with the organization.

5. The last step of the element of succession planning is the preparation of Management Resources Inventory consisting of the following:

v Personal Data
v Performance
v Potential
v Skills
v Career Goals
v Career Plans
This should help identify the best-qualified employees for filling present and future managerial vacancies.

Q 7(b) Explain the advantages of promoting employees from within the organization rather than employing outside persons.

Answer7 (b) From the motivational angle, importing new blood is undesirable especially when the existing personnel can be absorbed into higher positions. An exclusive policy of promoting persons from within the organization can lead to “inbreeding” resulting in promotion of people who have intimated there superiors. The benefits of recruiting from within the organization are as follows:

1. The valuable contacts with the major suppliers are kept. As the person who is working in the organization and dealing with the major suppliers, he will be more comfortable in getting the business from those suppliers other than the person who will be recruited as a new blood as it will take him time to create a reputation with that supplier and to get the business for the organization.
2. It builds loyalty among the employees: with the help of the internal recruitment the organization will be able to gain the loyalty of the employee who is working with the organization. As he will be aware that the organization knows about the worth of the person because of which he is being promoted and will also encourage other employee to prove there worth to the organization.
3. It ensures the stability from continuity of employment: Internal recruitment also helps in creating the stability and the continuity of the employees of the organization, as they will be encouraged to work hard to gain the status that they look forward to which will help in attaining the stability of the employees.
4. Creates a sense of security among the employees: as there will be more and more internal recruitment it tends to create a sense of security among the employees and will not be hesitant to work towards the achievement o the goals.
5. It encourages other executives and lower ranked officers to look forward to rising to higher levels. It acts as a motivational factor and encourages other employees to have a positive effect on their work and they start working with more enthusiasm and willingness.
6. The most important benefit of internal recruitment is that the people who are already working with the organization will be aware about the rules and regulation of the organization and will be familiar with the different activities that are happening in the organization.
7. The internal recruitment will also reduce the cost of training the new blood about the different strategies of working in the organization as the person who is already working with the organization will already have the knowledge about the work that will be given to him when he will be promoted.
8. Internal recruitment will help in saving the time that will be wasted in selecting the new blood for the organization and it will not include the process of scrutinizing the new blood for the organization.

So, to conclude we can say that the internal recruitment is the best way to motivate people within the organization to work hard towards the organizational goals and will also reduce the cost and time that is being spent on the procedure to select the new blood from outside for working in the organization.

Q9 (a) What is Job Evaluation? Explain the various methods used in conducting Job Evaluation Studies.

Answer9 (a)
Job evaluation is the technique to determine in a systematic and analytical manner the comparative worth of a job with an organization in relation to other jobs in terms of the skills needed, responsibilities involved, efforts required and the surroundings in which it is performed. Job evaluations attempts to measure these requirements for individual jobs and arrive at their respective worth and place them in their relative order. There are various techniques of job evaluation that helps in the analysis of the different jobs.

Techniques of Job Evaluation
All forms of the job evaluation are designed to enable the management to determine how much one job should be paid as compared to some other job. All the systems of job evaluation are being classified in to two categories:
1. Non quantitative which includes simple ranking and grading system
2. Quantitative, which included Point system and factor comparison method.
The description of these techniques is as follows:

1. Job Ranking: this method is widely used in small organizations being a very simple and inexpensive method it consumes less time and promises enough potential in its usefulness. Before actual ranking, brief job description of all jobs are taken and then the job’s relative worth is being worked on and the highest and the lowest job are determined which serves as the bench mark for the ranking of the remainder. The second method is the paired comparison technique in which each job is to be compared with all other jobs and once the comparison is being done, jobs are arranged to their worth.
2. Job Grading: in this we have the additional feature of pre-decided scale of values consisting of grades and grade description. From this, the grade descriptions are prepared which should be broad enough to include several jobs. Two approaches are being used in preparing the grade description that helps to create a single scale of values for measuring the worth of a job. For e.g. in an enterprises, job A and B are similar in nature and job X, Y and Z are of similar nature. Another approach is to give some known key jobs.
3. Factor comparison system: in this the job factors are compared instead of the whole job. It consists of the following steps:
v Selection of job characteristics
v Selection of key jobs
v Determination of correct rats of key jobs
v Ranking key jobs under each job factor
v Allocation of correct rates to each key job
v Evaluation of all other jobs
v Designing, adjusting and operating the wage structure.

4. Point rating system: it is quantifying, analytical and detailed approach hammered out to derive a balance wage structure with least dispute among employees. The method consists the following steps:
v Select job factor or features.
v Prepare yardstick of values for each job factor.
v Decide the values of all the jobs against the predetermined yardstick.
v Build a wage survey for selected key jobs.
v Design the wage structure.
v Adjust and operate the wage structure.

Labels: Human Resource Management(For Batch of 2003 and Earlier)
Human Resource Management(For Batch of 2003 and Earlier) - 2
Q4 (a) Define TQM. Examine the elements involved in TQM and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of TQM.

Answer4 (a)

The ISO 8402 has defined TQM as: “ Management approach of the organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long term success through customer satisfaction and benefits to all members of the organization and to society” or in other words it can defined as a cost effective system for integrating the continuous quality improvement efforts of people at all levels in the organization to deliver products and services which ensures quality satisfaction.

Elements of TQM

TQM emphasizes on various elements that support the philosophies of customer focus, continuous improvement, defect prevention and recognition that all shares quality responsibility. The basic elements are as follows:
1. Management Commitment to quality: the implementation of TQM should start from top and the management has to be unwavering in its commitment to quality. The management should reflect proper control on the part of the quality of goods and services that it is giving to its customers.
2. Focus on customers: the basic emphasis of TQM should be on customer satisfaction and the management should assure that the customer’s need and expectations should be understood and met.
3. Prevention rather that detection of defects: this philosophy seeks to prevent poor quality rather than detecting and sorting out defects. The technologies evolved to prevent defects are statistical process control, continuous process improvement and problem solving and system failure analysis.
4. Universal quality responsibility: according to TQM, quality is considered as a guiding philosophy that everyone shares in an organization and is not only the responsibility of the quality control department. Everyone that is responsible for the production of the good and services should share the credit of the quality of the goods and services given to the customer.
5. Quality measurement: it plays a very important aspect of TQM and quality being a measurable commodity one should be aware as to what current quality levels are prevailing and what amount of improvement is to be made in order to improve the quality of the product and should be able to meet the customer satisfaction.
6. Continuous improvement: TQM strives for continuous improvement in all areas, which is made possible by typing in closely with quality measurement and universal quality responsibility. The basic objective of this element is that it aims at zeroing on the process deficiencies that allowed the problem. It is not being attempted on a grand scale but pursued in small, incremental and manageable steps.
7. Root cause correction action: TQM seeks to identify the root cause of the problems and by implanting corrective actions that address problems at the root cause level which includes problem solving approach and systems failure analysis approach including fault free analysis and managing tracking tools.
8. Employee’s involvement and empowerment: according to TQM every employee is an active participant in goal attainment and should be provided with necessary tools and authority to overcome obstacle to achieve the goal of customer satisfaction.
9. Synergy of team: TQM emphasizes on synergy of team to tackle the problem and challenges of continuous improvement in the quality of the goods and services provided to the customer.
10. Benchmarking: This element involves defining competitor’s best features and adopting the best practices of these organization for once own operations.
11. Inventory reduction: also known as just in time inventory management, intends to address the material shortages and quality improvement i.e. the ultimate impact of this concept is that as inventory grew smaller, quality improved.
12. Value improvement: The essence of value improvement is the ability to meet customer expectation while removing unnecessary cost. Another principle of TQM is to develop long term relationship with a few high quality suppliers, rather than selecting those suppliers with the lowest initial cost. TQM philosophy believes that lower initial cost does not reflect the lowest overall life cycle cost if quality problem later immerges with the low bidder supplies.
13. Training: this is the basic element of TQM process and can be developed by encouraging continuous improvement in the quality and assuring customer satisfaction.

Advantages of TQM

1. It is able to generate higher profits in accordance with customer satisfaction.
2. Helps in manufacturing better quality products at lower cost.
3. Reduces wastages and prevents poor quality rather than detecting and correcting defects.
4. It eliminates shortage in the supply of inputs and insures that the organization does not purchase excessive inventory.
5. TQM analysis and improves the basic business system and subsystem to match customer requirements which helps in reducing product development time.
6. Increases the flexibility in meeting the market demand and helps in ascertaining the requirements of the customer and evolve systems to do a better job in shorter time.
7. TQM tends to motivate human resource, as it demands for employee’s involvement and empowerment.
8. It encourages the company to face competition, which is facilitated by better quality product, lower possible cost and a team of dedicated employees.

Disadvantages of TQM

1. It is enable to provide with reserves, which lead to disappoint, anxiety and even panic among the employees of the organization.
2. It is a time consuming process.
3. It gives rise to expectation on the part of the customer as the customer become knowledgeable about what a quality organization is all.

Q4 (b) What are Quality Circles? Examine the process involved in Quality Circles and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of quality circles.

Answer4 (b) Quality Circle can be defined as “a small group of employees from the same work area that meet regularly and voluntarily to identify, solve and implement solutions to work related problems.” i.e. it is the group of people who comes together to solve the work related problems in an effective manner.

Characteristics of Quality Circles:

ü It ranges from 4to 15 members and 8 members are considered to be the norm.
ü All members are from the same work area that gives the circle an identity.
ü There is one supervisor who usually works as a leader who moderates a discussion and promotes consensus but does not has the power of issuing orders or decisions.
ü Usually meets once a week to work on the problems faced by them.
ü Training is being given to each member of the Quality Circle bout the rules of the participation in the circle, the mechanics of running a meeting and making management presentation, and techniques of group problem solving.
SDü It is the members and not the management who choose the problem to work upon.
ü The members of the circle are being helped by technical specialist and management to solve a particular problem.

Process of Quality Circle
The basic aim of the circle members is to identify the problem and then analyze the problem and to find the solutions for the same. It also aims to achieve the objective through the development of people. The basic process involved in Quality Circle consists of the following points:

1. Problem collection: the primary task of the member of the circle is to create a problem bank and then to give priority to each problem depending on its benefit potential and urgency.
2. Problem Analysis: A good number of data collection tools, charts and statistical techniques to establish facts, before proceeding to find solutions.
3. Problem Solutions: A proper environment and group thinking together helps in finding the proper solutions to the problems. The people involved in the work area are best equipped to find the solutions to the problem in a more practical manner.
4. Management Presentation: Through management presentation, the circle members present there solutions to the management, highlight the benefits anticipated from the solution and if there is an acceptance to there solution then it acts a motivation factors.
5. Implementation, review and follow up: After getting the sanction from the management he next step is to plan for the implementation of the solution and follow up that are to carried out after a period of time.

So to conclude we can say the quality circle works as group that works in the fulfillment of the objective that leads to a problem free working toward the objective of the organization.

Q5 (a) What is manpower planning? Explain the various steps involved in the manpower planning.

Answer5 (a)

Manpower planning is defined as the process by which Management determines how the organization should move from its current manpower position to desired manpower position. Through planning, management strives to have the right time, doing things, which result in both the organization and individual receiving maximum long run benefits. Manpower planning is concerned with two things:
1. Planning of manpower requirement
2. Planning of manpower supplies.

The various benefits of Manpower Planning are:

v Forecasting of long-term manpower requirements helps to forecast the compensation costs involved and have an opportunity for developing existing manpower needs to fill the future openings through promotions which acts as a factor towards motivating the employees.
v Manpower Planning also enables the determination of the weaknesses of the existing manpower so that corrective training could be incorporated..

Steps involved in Manpower Planning

v Anticipating Manpower Needs: for securing maximum motivation, it is always better to encourage internal recruitment therefore it is more effective to try and meet the manpower requirements from the supplies existing within the organization itself which in turn will secure optimum motivation and ensure retention within the organization of its people.
v Planning job requirement and description: An important part in the manpower planning consists of the planning job requirement, which should be clearly determined through a minute study of the duties to be performed in that job.
Job Information

Job information helps in many ways and more particularly for the following:
ü Adequate Recruitment: the recruitment officer should have clear information regarding the type of person to be recruited that could be gathered from the job description and man specification.
ü Adequate Training: it is necessary for the training manager to know the job’s skills, which have to be learnt by the employee recruited.
ü Adequate Salary Structures: Job description is necessary for determining job grading structures appropriately stating the job value relationship internally.
ü Fair Appraisal: Performance appraisal cannot be fair unless the appraisal is clear in his mind about the requirements.

Job Description

A job description can be defined as written records of the duties, responsibilities and conditions of the job. The methods that generally provides the data are
ü Observation of the employees while performing their work.
ü Study of specially maintained diaries.
ü A review of critical incidents.
ü Discussion with departmental head or supervisor.
ü Discussion with outside consultants and experts.

v Skills analysis: the managerial abilities can be viewed the different emphasis placed by various schools of management thoughts. For e.g. according to the management science group, mangers are perceived as decision makers. And the behavioral scientist emphasizes the leadership and motivation abilities of mangers. However the skills required for successful executives can be divided into four types (1) Decision making skills (2) Leadership skills (3) Communication Skills (4) Organizational and social skills.
v Selecting adequate source or recruitment: there are two basic methods for the recruitment of people I the organization i.e. the internal source and the external source. The internal source includes the recruitment of the people who are already working in the organization in the form of there promotions or transfer on the basis of the employee’s merits, initiatives, accuracy of work, job knowledge and personal records. The internal source of recruitment is the best method that is being used in order to motivate the employees and to boost their morale and to develop loyalty among the employees for the organization.
The external source of recruitment involves the following points:
ü Recruitment advertising: It involves inviting applications from outside the organization through advertisements in the new papers and magazines.
ü Reference to employment exchange.
ü Recruitment from colleges.
ü A study of central applications’ file maintained of past applicants not selected at that time.
ü Use of special consultants for recruiting.

With the help of all these points we can say that external recruitment plays an important part in selecting the right kind of a person for the right kind of job.

So to conclude we can say that process of manpower planning need to have all the steps properly incorporated so as to choose the right number of recruitment for the right number of jobs.

Q5 (b) Explain what is meant by Human Resource Planning.

Answer5 (b) Human Resource planning can be defined as a process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number and kinds of people, at the right place, at the right time, capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall objectives or in other words HRP can be defined as planning for the future personnel needs of an organization, taking into account both internal activities and factors in the external environment.

Need and Importance of HRP

Human resource Planning translates the organization objectives and plans into the number of workers needed to meet these objectives. The need and importance of HRP is as follows:

ü HRP helps in determining the future manpower requirements and avoids problems like over staffing or understaffing in the organization.
ü HRP helps in tackling with the factors like competition, technology, government policies etc. that generates changes in the job content, skill requirements and number and types of personnel required.
ü Now a days there is a demand of exceptional intellectual skills while the existing staff becomes redundant, the HR manager has to attract and retain qualified and skilled personnel and also required to deal with issues like career development, succession planning for which he takes the help of HRP.
ü A proper and realistic human resource plan is needed to ensure equal employment and promotional appointments to the candidates fro weaker sections, physically handicapped and socially and politically oppressed citizens.
ü HRP provides valuable and timely information for various designing and execution of personnel functions like recruitment, selection, transfers, promotions, layoffs, training and development and performance appraisal.
ü It helps the organization to anticipate imbalance in human resources, which in turn will facilitate reduction in personal costs.
ü HRP facilitates planning for future needs which will help in better planning of assignments to develop managers and to ensure the organization has a steady supply of experienced and skilled employees.

Factors affecting Human Resource Planning

HRP is a dynamic and on going process. The process of updating is not very simple, since HRP is influenced by many factors, which are as follows:
ü The type of organization determines the production process and number and type of staff needed.
ü The human resource needs of an organization depend on the strategic plan adopted by it. For e.g. the growth of a business calls for hiring of additional labor, while mergers will need a plan for layoffs.
ü Organization operates under different political, social environment and has to carefully formulate the HR policies and so the HR manager has to evolve suitable mechanism to deal with uncertainties through career developments, succession planning, retirement schemes etc.
ü HRP also depends on the time periods and accordingly the short and long-term plans are adopted. And this time span is based on the degree of environmental uncertainties.
ü The type and quality of information used in making forecasting is an important factor influencing HRP. Accurate and timely human resource information system helps in getting better quality personnel.
ü HRP is required to ensure that suitable candidates should be appointed at the right kind of job.

So these are some of the factors that affect the human resource planning.

Limitations of Human Resource Planning

ü It is very difficult to ascertain future manpower requirements of an organization, as future is always uncertain.
ü It is more relevant to the countries that face the problem of scarcity of human resources.
ü It is a time consuming and costlier process.
ü It is beneficial in the organizations that adopt a professional approach and at the same time are conscious about the changing environment.
ü HRP is beneficial where adequate skilled manpower is available. .
ü HRP is also made difficult in the organizations that have a very high labor turnover.

Labels: Human Resource Management(For Batch of 2003 and Earlier)
Human Resource Management(For Batch of 2003 and Earlier) - 1
Q.1 a) What is the impact of globalization and liberalization on industries in our country?

Answer 1(a)

During the mid 1980s, the Congress Government headed by Rajiv Gandhi made a move to change the policies regarding business, licenses, and permits, as also its attitude towards multinational companies (MNCs) operating in India. However, it was only during the succeeding government of Narasimha Rao government that a strategy was actually formulated in this direction and marketed both in India and abroad. The strategy aimed to bring the Indian economy into the mainstream of the global economy, and at the same time allow a whiff of competition and growth to Indian business. This it was hoped would bring a new dimension to the concepts of quality, productivity, and growth.

In evitably, the winds of liberalization that swept through the nation opened a variable Pandora box, with far-reaching implications for hu7man resources management. It bought in a new era of technology, quality consciousness and competition which compelled Indian business to wake up from its somnambulism and reassess its assumptions for dealing with the complete-or-perish’ situation.

India has proven world that despite its chaotic political scenario, imbalance wealth distribution, redundant bureaucracy, past baggage of Nehruvian socialism, and its sundry other problem, it can implement sustainable economic restructuring in the world’s most populous democracy. India has the potential, but the strong economic performance of recent years requires continuing efforts to deepen it and make it work.

Since foreign entrants in India have distinct advantage in terms of state-of—art technology R&D.

Strong brand equity, Indian companies will be ringlet carefully quality system, capital and challenged to shape out. On the other hand, multinational companies (MNCs) have to settle down and be accepted by the domestic consumer, which is not always an easy process. Das gives guidelines to Indian companies for pursuing a winning strategy in the face of global competition.

The after math of liberalization and globalization has made Indian companies conscious of competition and quality and acquire a totally global mindset. According to Gurucharan Das they need to:

1. Focus on a single area of competence and not haplessly diversity
2. Initially concentrate on the domestic market and then leverage their economies of scable overseas
3. Be able to capitalize on global trade
4. Not ignore quality even when they are pursuing a low cost strategy
5. Be able to overcome their historic phobia for investing in product development.

Synergy between industry and government in an emerging country such as India is a major requirement. Several factors from which private enterprise was barred, till the recent past have been opened up. Simultaneously the domestic industry is reforming itself to meet the challenges of opportunity and competition from multinationals. The latter being a fresh entrant in Indian business has an advantage of designing its systems and procedure according to the challenged environment. Established Indian organizations however will have considerable baggage to carry, in terms of systems and also manpower.

Although India has significantly progressed due to the structural adjustment program, a lot remains to be achieved. A free market economy demand a transparent set of laws and quick disposal of litigation-something that the archaic Indian judicial system is ill-equipped to cope with.

The conflict between labor and capital had formed the basis of unionization in India. The unions demanded protection of labor against capital. With the introduction of technology and competition, the very existence of their jobs had become a major area of concern for the workers. Today due to restructuring programmed, in the short run job loss is quite significant in May industries.

Liberalization has not liberated poor in villages from the clutches of the moneylender. The rural poor are now perhaps even more under the grip of corrupt petards than say years ago.

Although there is little doubt that liberalization and globalization will generally lead to a buoyant economy, one needs to be watchful of the intense pain that change can cause to the affected sections of society during the crucial transition period.

Q1 (b) What is the effect of competition on Human Resource Management?

Answer 1 (b).

As a result of domestic and international competition, human resource management is being given a key role. Some of the effects in HRM are highlighted below:

• With manpower costs going up, and the need to bring product prices down to meet competition, manpower productivity has become a central issue in organizations. HR professionals will have to play a crucial role to fulfill this need.
• Another area of intervention would be in the case of joint ventures where professionals will have to predict and manage culture-fir policies. Companies are focusing on people with right profiles as also those who are capable.
• There is increasing emphasis on training and retraining to tap talent.
• Companies are showing increasing willingness to retain talent and redeploys manpower necessary.
• In some industry, India employees are being sought after abroad. This coupled with competition for employees among Indian companies, has led to an alarming attrition rate for some companies. To meet ambitious career aspirations and salary expectations, HR department are usually industry wise benchmarking for salary revisions.
• Employee compensation is being linked and programmers are becoming more focused, responsive and are also constantly reviewed against the external environment.
• Globalization has resulted in an influx of foreign managers to India.
• Corporate restructuring and redefining of roles are areas also focus

Q2 (a) What is Performance Appraisal? What are the objectives of the Performance Appraisal System?

Answer2 (a)

Performance appraisal can be defined as a formal exercise conducted by an organization to evaluate its employees in terms of the contribution made by them towards achieving organizational objectives or there personal strengths and weaknesses and in terms of the attributes that he has shown in achieving the objectives of the organization.

Objectives of the Performance Appraisal

The basic objectives of Personal Appraisal are as follows:
1. It enables each employee to understand his role and responsibility of the job that is being done by him/her.
2. To make each employee aware about his own strengths and weaknesses with respect to his role in the organization.
3. It identifies the developmental needs of the employee of the organization.
4. It tends to improve the relationship between the superior and subordinate through realization that each is dependent on each other.
5. It serves as a mechanism for improving the communication between the subordinate and the superior. The subordinate is well aware of the expectations of their superiors.
6. It provides an opportunity for the employees for their self-evaluation and goal setting.
7. It enables every employee to internalize the norms and values of the organizations so that an organizational identity and commitment is developed throughout the organization.
8. It prepares its employees for higher jobs by continuously reinforcing development of behavior and qualities for their high level positions.
9. It tends to motivate its employees and create a healthy environment in which the employees feel free to work.
10. It helps in a variety of personnel decision by generating relevant data on each employee periodically.

So performance appraisal can be treated as a tool, which can help the employee and the organization to work together in a more cordial manner towards the achievement of the organizational goals. Its acts a force which tends to motivate the employees of the organization to work towards the attainment of the organizational and personal goals.

Q2 (b) Explain the concept of 360-degree appraisal. How is this concept used in industry to appraise the employees?

Answer2 (b)

360-degree appraisal is basically Multi Rater Appraisal and feedback system, where a number of assesses an individual assesses including superior, subordinates, peers, and internal and external customers. The assessment is made on questionnaire specially designed to measure behaviors considered as critical for performance. The concerned persons do the appraisal anonymously and officials of the HRD department collect the assessment. The assessment is consolidated and feedback profiles are prepared and given to the participants after a workshop or directly by his boss or the HRD department in performance review discussion session.

Objective of 360-degree feedback

1. It provides an insight into the strong and weak areas of the candidates in terms of effective performance of roles, activities, style, traits, qualities, and competence impact on others.
2. It helps in identifying the developmental needs and preparing development plans more objectively in relation to current or future roles and performance improvement for an individual or a group.
3. It helps in data generating to serve as a more objective basis for rewards and other personnel decisions.
4. It acts as a basis for performance linked pay or performance rewards.
5. Alignment of individual and group goals with organizational vision, values and goals.

360-Degree Feedback
The whole process of conducting 360-Degree feedback process in any organization could last anywhere from one and a half to about 3 months from the start, depending of course on the coverage of people and the geographical spread of the organization’s unit.

Five phases that make up the process of the Feedback exercise are:

1. Participants Orientation and modality of the exercise: this phase lays the foundation of the whole exercise in the organization. Some very important issues that are discussed and clarified in this phase are as follows:
ü Purpose of 360-degree feedback.
ü How is it going to be administered?
ü Who are going to rate or provide feedbacks?
ü Who will analyze the data?
ü Is it a part of the performance appraisal.
ü Does the organization own the data generated and could corporate decisions be taken on this basis?
ü Validity of the data generated and raters rating.

Also discussed and clarified are the issues related to choosing the raters, guidelines for the process, type of work related people who are eligible to give the feedback and also the anonymity maintained during the whole exercise.

2. Questionnaire distribution: All participants are to submit a list of appraisal by which they would like to assess. Guidelines, if any, for choosing assessors would depend on factors such as size of the company and the work culture therein. There are companies where the HR department lists out the rater by choosing randomly from the participant’s list of work related employees. Each rater receives an envelops having the following:
ü Letter from the administrator: it includes brief description regarding the exercise regarding the exercise, name of the participant nominated for the workshop and a request for feedback, which would help enhance effectiveness of the participant.
ü Letter from the participant soliciting feedback: contains his/her direct request to the rater explaining the exercise and to whom the questionnaires are being given
ü Self-addressed envelop from the administrator: contains a note of thanks from the participant’s side and reinforcement or anonymity.
ü Questionnaires

3. Monitoring and Follow Up: this phase follows the distribution of questionnaires to all assessors. Since the whole exercise is done on an anonymous basis, it is difficult to closely monitor on who has sent the feedback and who has not sent. All the questionnaires are being processed in a central place of the administrator. And then these questionnaires are being processed for the name of the participant, the working relationship of the rater and hence for each participant, a schedule is being kept regarding the feedback the assessor is getting.

4. Data Feeding and Reports: as the questionnaires are being received the data is being feeded in the computer in its raw form. There is a pre-set format that on basis of the questionnaires and the individual data sheet would contain only the raw scores of all his assessors arranged in order of categories of superiors, subordinates, colleagues etc. and as the data is feeded he formulas are being applied.

5. Work shop: basically a two day workshop is conducted which stretches to three or more days since two days are taken up for distributing the reports and its analysis in a phased manner while the remaining period is used for individual counseling with the administrator. The two main issues that are stressed through out the workshop are as follows:
ü Openness to feedbacks.
ü Development attitudes.

Each question in the workshop is being ranked keeping in mind its relative importance to the job of the participant. The activity not only help in getting a better understanding of what each question measures, but also helps them later on in terms of pointing out specific areas needing more attention.

So with the help of all these five phases 360-degree the concept of 360-degree is used in the industry.

Q3 (a) What is Performance Counseling? Explain the process involved in Performance Counseling.

Answer3 (a)

Performance Counseling refers to the help provided by a superior to its subordinates in objectively analyzing their performance. It focuses on the analysis of performance and identification of training and developing needs for bringing about further improvement. The major benefits of performance counseling that can help an employee are as follows:
v It helps the employees to know their strengths and weaknesses.
v It helps in improving the professional and interpersonal relation between the superior and the subordinates.
v It tends to set goals and formulate action plans for future improvement.
v It helps the employees in generating various solutions for different problems.
v It provides a supportive and empathetic atmosphere in which the employee feels encouraged to discuss his suggestions, tensions, conflicts etc.

Process involved in Performance Counseling

The basic process involved in Performance Counseling is that the superior should pay careful attention to the ideas and feeling of the subordinate and should listen to all the suggestions and ideas that are being given by the employees. He should be able to encourage his employees to be more open towards the new ideas and should feel free to talk to the manager about their tensions and conflicts. This requires both patience and skills on the part of the superior, who is doing the performance counseling. Questions play a very important role in performance counseling as it can help in gathering more information and stimulating thinking. By asking questions the manager will be able to know more about the employee and will be able to help him in solving different tensions and conflicts that are being faced by him. But not all the questions lead to facilitate healthy communication.
The manager should be able to make the employee know about his strengths and weaknesses and should help him in overcoming his weaknesses and should be able to convert his weaknesses into his strengths. The employee should be able to improve the relationship between the superior and the subordinates. With the help of the performance counseling the manager should be able to provide his employee with an environment in which he is free to talk about the different tensions, conflicts and problems.
The performance counseling process also includes the setting of goals and formulating the action plans for the achievement of goals and generating the alternative solutions for different problem faced while working for an organization.

Process involved in performance counseling

For repeated but relatively minor incidents of substandard performance, misconduct, or rule violations, corrective counseling and discipline should be progressive. The normal sequence of action is: (1) Initial discussion; (2) Oral Warning; (3) Written Reprimand; (4) Suspension; (5) Discharge. Depending on the severity of the case, the action may begin at any of these steps. Any action involving suspension or discharge requires prior review by the Assistant Vice President of Human Resources or his/her designated representative.

Initial Discussion:
Normally, initial disciplinary action should be in the form of an oral discussion, especially for minor rule violations. If it appears that an employee has failed to perform his/her work or conduct him/herself according to requirements, the supervisor should first talk to the employee about the matter and informally inquire further into the situation. If facts indicate that the employee may have been at fault, the supervisor should discuss the matter with him/her and the expectations of the supervisor or steps needed for improvement. The supervisor should always seek to ascertain the employee's comments regarding the incident, behavior, or poor performance.

Oral Warning:
If the initial discussion fails to produce the desired results, an oral warning is normally the next step. With an oral warning, the supervisor should again discuss the matter with the employee. If the supervisor wishes, he/she may call on another person to be present as a witness, preferably another supervisor. The employee should understand the gravity of the situation. With an oral warning, the employee is put on notice that disciplinary action will be forthcoming if there is a repeated violation or if the situation does not improve. Supervisors should maintain a complete and accurate written notation of the warning.

Written Reprimand:
Before a Written Reprimand is issued, the employee should be allowed to respond (preferably in writing) to the charges of misconduct currently made against him/her. If it is then determined that a Written Reprimand is appropriate, the Written Reprimand should involve both a formal interview with the employee by the supervisor and an official memorandum to the employee emphasizing the negative effect of the employee's conduct or work performance on his/her record and opportunities for advancement. If the immediate supervisor does not have the authority to discharge, then such an interview should be conducted by or with the permission of the department official who does have discharge authority. A written reprimand should include: names of everyone involved, dates, description of incident or unsatisfactory performance, witnesses (if any), and action taken. Reference should be made to dates and results of prior oral warning(s), or other written reprimand(s), if any. Also included should be action that will be taken if satisfactory improvement does not occur. Additionally, this document should provide the employee with information relevant to their right to appeal the action under the Complaint and Grievance Policy (9.03) of the Personnel Policies and Procedures Manual. A copy of this policy should be attached to the reprimand. The reprimanding official should sign the reprimand. It should also bear or request the employee's comments, if any, and his/her signature. The employee should be informed that his/her signature indicates receipt of a copy of the reprimand letter, but not necessarily mean that he/she agrees with its contents. If the employee refuses to or is unable to sign the reprimand, a witness, preferably another supervisor should verify that the employee has received a copy of the reprimand. A copy of the letter of reprimand should be sent to Human Resource Services, Employee Relations division. Written Reprimands will be removed from an employee’s permanent file, and placed in a confidential file in Human Resource Services, if requested by both the employee and the supervisor and the employee has performed satisfactory work for a twelve (12) month period from the date of the last reprimand letter. In unusual circumstances, the department official may request the reprimand be removed from the file prior to the end of the twelve-month period. The reprimand will remain a part of the employee’s record.

" Suspension" means the interruption (without compensation) of the active employment status pending an investigation and decision as to the extent of disciplinary action; or suspension may be disciplinary action in itself. A supervisor with authority to discharge has authority to suspend without pay, either as a disciplinary measure or to permit investigation of alleged charges. Before suspension action is taken the immediate supervisor must discuss the situation with his/her supervisor, the Assistant Vice President of Human Resources or his/her designated representative and the employee and allow the employee to respond (preferably in writing) to the charges. If suspension is warranted, the employee should be presented with a written document which indicates he/she is being suspended, the number of days suspended, and the reasons for the suspension. Suspension involves removal from the payroll for a specified period of time, or in some cases, indefinitely. To suspend (dock) an employee from payroll, the supervisor who has discharge authority must forward a written memo to Payroll. The memo should stipulate the name of the employee being suspended, his/her social security number, and the number of days suspended and that the employee is "being suspended as disciplinary action for violation of a major work rule. A Payroll Authorization Form HRM-6 should be completed to remove the employee from the payroll.

Discharge or Release:
In cases other than serious offenses, release from employment should be used as a last resort. When it becomes necessary to release an employee, the record he/she has established, in effect, will have released the employee. The supervisor/manager who has the authority to employ also has the authority to discharge. Since the most extreme disciplinary measure is discharge, before the discharge the supervisor or management official who initiates this action must review with the Assistant Vice President of Human Resources or his/her designated representative, the procedure that has been followed. This review will assure that the case for dismissal has been objectively investigated and is both justified and properly documented. Regular non-probationary staff that is being considered for discharge for major rule violations shall be given an opportunity to respond to the allegations (preferably in writing) prior to the decision to discharge. This may be accomplished in a meeting with the employee or by providing the employee a written letter for his or her response. If after reviewing the response, and discharge is in order, an employee should be presented with a letter indicating discharge, the reasons for the discharge, and the date of the discharge. As with every step outlined in this policy, the manager must allow for and seek to ascertain the employee's comments regarding the situation. Since discharge requires prior consultation and approval, it should not be done "on-the-spot.” If the management official feels it is improper to leave the employee on duty until such approval can be obtained, he/she should consult with Human Resource Services to see if indefinite suspension or administrative leave is appropriate. This also allows time for any necessary investigation.

Immediate Suspension:
In extremely serious cases involving unruly behavior, violence or imminent threat to personal safety or property, the supervisor and/or Police Department may determine the need for immediate arrest or removal from Health Science Center property of an employee. This may include collecting all Health Science Center property from the employee. This should be considered an immediate suspension and may warrant proceeding with the discharge process above.

So to conclude we can say that the process of Performance Counseling includes all the motivational factors that can help the employees to work freely towards the achievement of the organizational goals.

Q3 (b) What are the objectives of Potential Appraisal?

Answer 3(b)

The objectives of potential appraisal are:
To assess an individual in terms of the highest level of work the individual will be able to handle comfortably and successfully in future without being over-stretched.
To assist the organization in discharging its responsibility of selecting and developing managers for the future to ensure continuous growth of the organization.